At the completion of this course, the student should be able to do the following:
I. Introduction to Scientific Methods and Applications
- Demonstrate an understanding of the scientific method, the process of scientific inquiry, and the nature of science. (should be threaded throughout course).
- Demonstrate an understanding of laboratory safety (should be threaded throughout course).
- Demonstrate an understanding of data collection (observation, measurement, recording, etc.), and the interpretation of data (should be threaded throughout course).
- Communicate scientific ideas and activities clearly (should be threaded throughout course).
- Question scientific claims and arguments effectively (should be threaded throughout course).
- Identify patterns of change using records, tables, or graphs of measurements (should be threaded throughout course).
A. Composition and Properties
B. Changes and Conservation of Matter
- Differentiate among solids, liquids, and gases.
- Differentiate between physical and chemical properties; describe objects in terms of their composition and physical properties.
- Identify (or classify) objects based upon their physical composition and properties (for example, color, size, shape, weight, texture, buoyancy, flexibility).
- Describe models of atomic structure.
- Describe atomic composition.
- Verify that an object is the sum of its parts by manipulating and measuring different objects made of different parts.
- Investigate how common items have parts that are too small to be seen without magnification; examine and sketch small objects using a microscope (for example, soil, sand, salt, sugar, and various natural and synthetic materials); explain how scientists use magnification to solve problems.
- Differentiate between physical and chemical changes, and how different materials react differently to change.
- Demonstrate an understanding of the separation of mixtures of various types, for example, the separation of inks and food colors using paper chromatography.
- Describe the physical and chemical changes that can occur in different substances (for example, dissolving, melting, boiling, evaporating, rusting, fading of paper, oxidation of fruit, effervescence, decay, reaction of baking soda and vinegar, etc.).
- Recognize that changes in state of water are due to temperature differences, and that they are examples of physical change.
- Investigate the properties of a substance before, during, and after a chemical reaction to find evidence of change.
B. Types and Utilization
- Identify sources of light energy, heat energy, and kinetic energy.
- Identify ways to produce energy, and how energy is used; identify ways to produce heat energy (for example, burning, friction, mixing chemicals).
- Explain the relationship between light and heat.
- Demonstrate the role of friction in heat production.
- Demonstrate an understanding of how heat energy from the sun is transferred to various materials.
C. Change and Conservation
- Describe the various types of energy: mechanical, chemical, nuclear, electrical, solar, heat, etc.
- Demonstrate and describe energy conversion.
- Explain the role of conduction and convection in heat exchange.
- Investigate how insulation affects heating and cooling.
- Compare the differences between energy conductors and insulators.
- Use thermometers to measure temperature (such as changes in temperature of water samples over time).
- Discuss the challenges of efficiency and energy utilization.
- Evaluate alternative sources of energy production.
A. Forces and Motion/Kinematics
B. Gravitational forces
- Investigate different types of motion.
- Identify and use simple machines (for example, lever, pulley, wedge, inclined plane, screw, wheel and axle).
- Use simple machines to solve problems; explain the use of simple machines.
- Demonstrate how imputed force affects the motion and velocity of objects with different masses.
- Show the effect of gravity on the motion of objects (non projectile).
- Summarize the role of gravity in the solar system (near and far from the surface of the Earth).
- Explain the relationship between atomic structure and the electromagnetic spectrum using various light sources.
- Differentiate the concepts of diffraction, reflection and refraction.
- Demonstrate an understanding of the physical attributes of a prism, and the use of a prism to investigate the nature of light; use a prism to observe a spectrum.
- Summarize how mirrors work including the concepts of concavity, convexity, and focal points.
- Summarize how lenses work, and identify the physical attributes of a convex lens and a concave lens, and where each is used.
- Explain the concepts of transparency, opacity, and translucence.
- Explain the relationship between the properties of a wave (for example, amplitude, wavelength, frequency, etc.) and the properties of light and sound (color, pitch, volume, etc.); explain how vibrations produce sound, and how sound can be varied by changing the rate of vibration.
- Compare the concepts of destructive and constructive interference.
- Apply safety rules for electricity and demonstrate an understanding of the dangers of electricity.
- Demonstrate and explain static electricity.
- Design and build an electrical circuit (using for example batteries, light bulbs, wires, resistors, etc.).
- Describe the relationship among voltage, current, and resistance (Ohmís Law).
- Differentiate between AC and DC current.
- Investigate common materials to determine if they are electrical conductors or insulators.
C. Gravitational field
- Identify the relative susceptibility of different materials and common objects to magnetic fields.
- Explain the relationship between strength of field and distance from source; identify common objects that do not block magnetic forces (for example, air, wood, paper, etc.); show how magnets can make some things move without being touched.
- Compare magnetic attraction and repulsion.
- Compare a bar magnet to an electromagnet.